Most Recent Articles - 首页-必威登录|客户端下载『必威体育』APP - 西汉姆联官方赞助商! Inquiries Journal provides undergraduate and graduate students around the world a platform for the wide dissemination of academic work over a range of core disciplines. en-us Fri, 16 Aug 2019 00:47:56 -0400 Fri, 16 Aug 2019 00:47:56 -0400 Echoes of W.E.B. Du Bois' Double-Consciousness in the "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass" - 首页-必威登录|客户端下载『必威体育』APP - 西汉姆联官方赞助商! By Mohammed Ritchane - A detailed analysis through a text-based study of Frederick Douglass’ Narrative of the Life Of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, Written by Himself (1845) will allow the reader to see the characteristics of double-consciousness dramatized in exactly the same way they would be delineated by Du Bois in The Souls of Black Folk (1903). Hence, this study of the Narrative with the aim of revealing all the aspects pertaining to double-consciousness would concentrate on the text as a closed system, putting aside all extraneous material so that the text, by itself, be considered a repository... Sat, 20 Apr 2019 10:40 EDT The Military Masculine: Storytelling and Role-playing in Phil Klay's Stories of War - 首页-必威登录|客户端下载『必威体育』APP - 西汉姆联官方赞助商! By William R. Fuller - This paper explores the conflict between hegemonic and new masculinity in Phil Klay’s Redeployment, illustrating the changing conception of gender roles and masculinity in storytelling about war. This paper juxtaposes traditional conceptions of masculinity by examining failures in role-playing in Klay’s short stories. Conflicts arise out of social expectations of the “hero,” the relationship between masculinity and femininity, and trauma caused by war. An additional important relationship is that of the storyteller and his tale. Importantly, some of Klay’s characters... Wed, 03 Apr 2019 07:55 EDT Fringe Religion & the Far-Right: Dangerous Behavior Patterns Among Christian Millennialists - 首页-必威登录|客户端下载『必威体育』APP - 西汉姆联官方赞助商! By Naomi E. Pearson - Radical thinking among the far-right is a growing security problem for modern western society. Over the past several decades anti-government ideologies have been gaining legitimacy due to controversial interactions between Millennialist fringe religious groups and law enforcement agencies which have produced tragic outcomes and recruited new followers to far-right causes. Historically, interactions between Millennialist ‘New Religions’ or ‘Fringe Religious Groups’ and law enforcement have resulted in an escalation of conflict and a tragic loss of life. This paper will conduct... Fri, 01 Mar 2019 10:05 EST Discourse, Public Space, and the Politics of Korean "Comfort Women:" Implications for East Asian Relations - 首页-必威登录|客户端下载『必威体育』APP - 西汉姆联官方赞助商! By Ann W. Kim - The issue of “comfort women,” sex slaves utilized by the Japanese army during World War II, is treated in this paper as a collective memory in the consciousness of South Koreans. Differing narratives of this historical event, and the emphasis placed on it, serves as the underlying basis for increased present tensions between the governments of South Korea and Japan. To understand the complexity of these painful experiences as a collective memory requires a discussion on the impact of colonization as well as contemporary problems regarding a whitewashing of history and the utilization... Wed, 20 Feb 2019 08:23 EST Climate Change as a Security Issue in the Indo-Pacific Region: Borders, Environmental Phenomena and Preexisting Vulnerabilities - 首页-必威登录|客户端下载『必威体育』APP - 西汉姆联官方赞助商! By Billie R. Trinder - In recent years, climate change has been increasingly framed as a security issue, with some theorists going so far as to call it the most important security issue of the 21st century. This paper will examine the relationship between climate change and human security through the lens of environmental possibilism (Sprout, 1965), recognizing related environmental phenomena as risk intensifiers. It is recognized that climate change acts as a risk multiplier to violent conflict rather than a direct cause, where the vulnerability and ability or inability of populations to adapt to environmental change... Fri, 15 Feb 2019 09:38 EST Slavery to Self-Liberation: The Haitian Revolution in Marxist Theory - 首页-必威登录|客户端下载『必威体育』APP - 西汉姆联官方赞助商! By Alexander J. Clegg - The Haitian Revolution of 1791 – 1804 was a successful slave rebellion in the French colony of Saint-Domingue that began in the wake of the French Revolution and went on to influence subsequent liberation movements for decades to come. The Saint-Domingue revolutionaries have been described as having "invented decolonisation" (Nesbitt, 2008: 9), thus making the newly independent Haiti "the first postcolonial state" (ibid.: 56) in 1804, an extraordinary achievement considering that only a few years before, Saint-Domingue had been the world’s most valuable colony. This essay examines... Wed, 06 Feb 2019 09:08 EST Gender-Based Violence in Refugee Camps: Understanding and Addressing the Role of Gender in the Experiences of Refugees - 首页-必威登录|客户端下载『必威体育』APP - 西汉姆联官方赞助商! By Mie A. Jensen - The discussion of 'women's rights' is often subsumed into the broader consideration of 'human rights,' but when it comes to understanding the experiences of the world's most vulnerable people — refugees — the issue of gender cannot be ignored. The experiences of refugees depend on one’s gender, where women are significantly disadvantaged. Globally, 80% of the refugee and internally displaced people are children and women, which leaves them in a vulnerable position (Qayum, Mohmand and Arooj 2012:63); this includes vulnerability to physical attacks, sexual assaults, and transactional... Tue, 05 Feb 2019 09:10 EST Populist Mobocracy, Fear, and Lies: The Politics of American Populism - 首页-必威登录|客户端下载『必威体育』APP - 西汉姆联官方赞助商! By Anthony R. Brunello - American politics today operates in an arena where truth and objective reality are bent to the designs of particular interests, powerful people and commercial profiteers. All facts are questioned; the truth has purposes. Populist and nationalist waves are pulsing through many western democratic republics in the West; these waves are a challenge to the values of liberal democracy. A populist believes that the common man is possessed of the highest virtues and an earthy, superior wisdom. Fareed Zakaria said in Foreign Affairs (2017) that, “populism sees itself as speaking for the forgotten... Tue, 05 Feb 2019 08:35 EST The Search for Nationhood in Older Scots Literature: A Study of "The Flyting of Dunbar and Kennedy" and "The Tale of Ralph the Collier" - 首页-必威登录|客户端下载『必威体育』APP - 西汉姆联官方赞助商! By Glenn A. Mills - The corpus of Older Scots literature is hyper-attentive to the themes and issues surrounding nationhood and sovereignty. Authors of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries often espoused and exploited the national pride of the Scottish people, producing works which articulated an incipient sense of Scottish nationalism. Indeed, starting from the second half of the fifteenth century, Scotland began to enjoy a period of ‘national and cultural confidence.’[1] Despite a tumultuous period of Stewart minorities, James IV’s right to rule was gradually recognised by competing Scottish... Fri, 01 Feb 2019 09:03 EST The Criminal Justice System's Mistreatment of Transgender Individuals: A Call for Policy Reform to Assist a Marginalized Prisoner Community - 首页-必威登录|客户端下载『必威体育』APP - 西汉姆联官方赞助商! By Stephenie King - While media coverage and politicians constantly acknowledge the inadequacies of the criminal justice system in managing victims and offenders of color and low socioeconomic status, the discussion about the failure of the criminal justice system towards transgender individuals, victims or offenders, is an issue that is rarely discussed. Transgender individuals have experienced a history of mistreatment and prejudice by traditional society, including judicially, but with contemporary acceptance movements and a rise in openly trans figureheads and celebrities, some may think the history of mistreatment... Thu, 31 Jan 2019 09:45 EST Women & Globalization: The Impact of Increased Women's Economic Rights on Globalization - 首页-必威登录|客户端下载『必威体育』APP - 西汉姆联官方赞助商! By Liam F. Kerr - Globalization is generally studied as a process that extensively impacts nations and peoples across every aspect of society. Empirical and theoretical research largely focuses on this effect, seeking to discover the impact of an increasingly globalized world on the rights and circumstances of historically disadvantaged peoples, particularly women. While research suggests a mixed verdict on the positive and negative results of globalization for women, there is generally a paucity of research on whether an increase in women’s economic rights might enhance globalization, measured by global... Tue, 15 Jan 2019 09:57 EST The Captain's Compromise: Political Symbolism in Herman Melville's "Benito Cereno" - 首页-必威登录|客户端下载『必威体育』APP - 西汉姆联官方赞助商! By Brian Chen - Until the outbreak of civil war, the United States would continually try and fail to subdue the existential threat of slavery, with each attempt exacerbating the sectional tensions between slave and free states. In 1830, Massachusetts Senator Daniel Webster claimed that the country stood on the “precipice of disunion” and foresaw a future in which “the broken and dishonored fragments of a once glorious Union” are drenched in “fraternal blood.”[1] As tribalism tore away the shared history between the North and South, Webster’s grim prediction would eventually... Wed, 09 Jan 2019 10:37 EST The 'Versipel' Charles Kinbote in Vladimir Nabokov's "Pale Fire" - 首页-必威登录|客户端下载『必威体育』APP - 西汉姆联官方赞助商! By Brenda S. Tolian - Pale Fire by Vladimir Nabokov is a masterpiece of literature that seems to transform into a remarkably personal experience for anyone who approaches the text. The book reads in many ways like a game full of mysteries and innuendos and has in its postmodern approach no discernible rules. One can begin as usual, or dive into the index or immerse themselves in the cantos first. Our expectations of what text should do and how someone should act can become shattered by this book that refuses to behave. Almost at once one has this queer feeling that they are a witness to the manipulations of Charles... Wed, 09 Jan 2019 09:24 EST Class, Gender and the Anxieties of Meritocracy in Jacobean England - 首页-必威登录|客户端下载『必威体育』APP - 西汉姆联官方赞助商! By Joshua B. Black - The staged plays of the early Jacobean period are valuable textual products for the literary critic, the cultural researcher and the historian alike. These plays are significant containers of knowledge about the mutually reinforcing social and political tensions of the early years of King James I’s reign. There is a body of literature which presently deals with questions about the complex class and gender politics of John Webster’s The Duchess of Malfi (1614): Frank Whigham concluded that the ‘play was written, at least in significant part, to dissect the actual workings of the... Tue, 08 Jan 2019 09:46 EST Studying Ancient DNA to Understand Contemporary Disease - 首页-必威登录|客户端下载『必威体育』APP - 西汉姆联官方赞助商! By Wafaa Khatau - The study of DNA and genetics has always been a large mystery to many scientists. The current Ancient DNA (aDNA) research on human history is more complex than what can be inferred from modern DNA research. Scientists and researchers are constantly using modern day populations, and modern DNA to make inferences about past populations (Haber et al., 2016). With the new technologies available in ancient DNA, the study of past diseases and populations is more easily conducted with little to no contamination. Studying aDNA does not only tell us about current and past disease, but can also shed light... Thu, 20 Dec 2018 12:07 EST Exploring the Origins of Achievement Goals and Their Impact on Well-Being - 首页-必威登录|客户端下载『必威体育』APP - 西汉姆联官方赞助商! By David A. Olson - Achievement goals refer to the motivational approach of an individual when facing an achievement situation that challenges the person’s sense of competence, such as a university course (Baranik, Stanley, Bynum, & Lance, 2010; Harackiewicz, Barron, & Elliot, 1998; Reeve, 2009). Research in this area is primarily quantitative and largely does not provide the opportunity for participants to elaborate on why they adopt certain achievement goals or what effect it has on their personal well-being. Drawing upon a questionnaire completed by fifty participants, seven interviews, and three... Wed, 19 Dec 2018 10:21 EST Is Medical Debt a Social Determinant of Health? - 首页-必威登录|客户端下载『必威体育』APP - 西汉姆联官方赞助商! By Vikrant Bhatnagar - Medical Debt has largely been viewed as a financial burden. While studies have linked Medical Debt to decreased savings, reduced health access, foreclosure of homes, and loss of income, there has been little to no research exploring Medical Debt’s effect as a social determinant of health. While Medicaid expansion via the Affordable Care Act has decreased overall Medical Debt, data on this phenomenon fails to adequately address the broader issue: the need to isolate statistically Medical Debt’s association with patient access to care. A sensible first step to explore this phenomenon... Tue, 30 Oct 2018 09:51 EDT Changes in Estonian Defense Policy Following Episodes of Russian Aggression - 首页-必威登录|客户端下载『必威体育』APP - 西汉姆联官方赞助商! By Benjamin Cooper - After joining the European Union (EU) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 2004, Estonians felt secure and in charge of their future. However, following the 2007 Bronze Horseman incident in the Estonian capital of Tallinn which included riots incited by Russian disinformation as well as cyberattacks on the Estonian banking and government infrastructure, many in Estonia became cognizant of the need for the Estonian Defense Forces (EDF), NATO, and the EU to do more to combat the growing Russian threat. When Russia invaded Crimea in 2014, any Estonian illusions of a peaceful and mutually... Tue, 30 Oct 2018 09:29 EDT Learning to Love the Absolute Other in the Poetry of Seamus Heaney and Michael Longley - 首页-必威登录|客户端下载『必威体育』APP - 西汉姆联官方赞助商! By Madeleine A. Gallo - Innocent lamb, savage tiger, free-flying eagle – time after time animals interrupt poetry as the ideal, the muse, the hero, or the grotesque operating alongside humanity. In tracking animal imagery throughout contemporary Irish poetry, we may run the risk of imposing a perhaps unfair anthropocentric epistemology onto these poets. Although at times poets like Seamus Heaney or Michael Longley endeavor to convert animals into something more humanlike, or something that exists merely at the mercy of mankind, what lies beneath this original uneasiness is anguish over the fact that they as men... Tue, 30 Oct 2018 09:11 EDT Can the Value Proposition Work in Health Care? - 首页-必威登录|客户端下载『必威体育』APP - 西汉姆联官方赞助商! By Frederick J. White - The value proposition in the commercial setting is the functional relationship of quality and price. It is held to be a utility maximizing function of the relationship between buyer and seller. Its proponents assert that translation of the value proposition into the health care system of the United States is a necessary and perhaps indispensable solution to the current structural difficulties of health services delivery in our nation. But the application of the value proposition to health care delivery in the United States will meet with difficulty for a myriad of reasons. Some of these are inherent... Wed, 24 Oct 2018 08:24 EDT A State of Illegitimacy: The Dynamics of Criminal and State Legitimacy in Mexico - 首页-必威登录|客户端下载『必威体育』APP - 西汉姆联官方赞助商! By Benjamin J. Mackey - The following paper seeks to elucidate the complex processes involved in the Mexican State’s loss of authority and the subsequent acquisition of this authority by armed criminal groups operating in that country. In theoretical terms, this authority is termed the monopoly on the legitimate use of violence, and its transfer from the State to criminal groups carries profound implications - both quantifiable and otherwise - that are explored here. In order to detail the first half of this process, wherein the Mexican State has lost its authority, this paper presents a framework based on the... Mon, 08 Oct 2018 08:15 EDT Differences in Ethical Decision-Making and Reward Responsiveness in Individuals with Anxiety and Depression - 首页-必威登录|客户端下载『必威体育』APP - 西汉姆联官方赞助商! By George Bate - This study aimed to determine if anxiety and depression in individuals are related to deontological ethical decisions, with particular emphasis on the role of reward responsiveness as an underlying principle mediating any differences. Despite some studies indicating that anxiety and depression can impede upon general decision making, existing research has largely failed to address the impact of these enduring traits on ethical decision making. In order to assess this, three trait inventories measuring anxiety, depression and reward responsiveness, along with an ethical dilemma measure, were administered... Wed, 05 Sep 2018 09:30 EDT Explaining the Rise of Populism in Poland: The Post-Communist Transition as a Critical Juncture and Origin of Political Decay in Poland - 首页-必威登录|客户端下载『必威体育』APP - 西汉姆联官方赞助商! By Phillip S. Swallow - The Polish populist Law and Justice Party (PiS) overturned the mainstream consensus in Polish politics by returning to power in 2015 with a populist platform, decrying a selfish elite and advancing policies that critics saw as illiberal and authoritarian. In response to the PiS’s policies, the European Commission took the extreme step of triggering Article 7, which could result in suspension of Poland’s voting rights, among other sanctions(Baume, 2017). How did things go so wrong? Poland was once the shining example of the EU’s eastward expansion. Donald Tusk, its former president... Sat, 07 Jul 2018 10:14 EDT Specific Language Impairment in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder - 首页-必威登录|客户端下载『必威体育』APP - 西汉姆联官方赞助商! By Pamela Lim - Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are among the most common neurodevelopmental disorders. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), studies in Asia, Europe, and North America have identified individuals with ASD with an average prevalence of about 1% (CDC, 2015). ASDs are typically diagnosed in early childhood, often at or before preschool age. However, there is no specific genetic test or clinical procedure for diagnosis. Diagnosis is based mainly on documented core impairments related to social interaction, communication, as well as restricted and repetitive behavior (... Fri, 25 May 2018 10:16 EDT Wind Energy Legislation Strategies for the Lone Star State - 首页-必威登录|客户端下载『必威体育』APP - 西汉姆联官方赞助商! By Elizabeth A. Weis - Texas introduced Senate Bill 277 as its first wind energy siting law during the 2017 Legislature. The bill combats radar interference between wind and military equipment by exempting any wind farm within thirty nautical miles of a military base from tax deductions. This rule does not make sense for several reasons: it defies the economic logic grounding Texas’ decision to pursue wind energy, it addresses an issue traditionally handled by the federal government, and employs inefficient tactics the Department of Defense no longer uses. The inadequacies of this legislation point out that lawmakers... Fri, 11 May 2018 09:31 EDT Mindfulness-Based Art Therapy: A Review of the Literature - 首页-必威登录|客户端下载『必威体育』APP - 西汉姆联官方赞助商! By Liza M. Hinchey - The concept of mindfulness, which originated from early Buddhist practices, historically encouraged an enlightening meditation that focused on awareness of one’s emotions, sensations, and consciousness (Smalley & Winston, 2010). Today, mindfulness practice continues to be defined as “an awareness of self and a capacity to reflect” (Smalley & Winston, 2010), but has branched out from its roots as a Buddhist meditation method to become integrated into psychology as a means of coping with a variety of conditions including anxiety, eating disorders, substance abuse, and other... Wed, 09 May 2018 05:27 EDT Educational Investment and Sociopsychological Wellbeing Among Rural Chinese Women - 首页-必威登录|客户端下载『必威体育』APP - 西汉姆联官方赞助商! By Jason Hung - Universal secondary education is vital if rural China is to achieve long-term socioeconomic sustainability, as education offers the pragmatic skills and knowledge base that would allow those living in rural China to adapt to the knowledge-intensive global economy (Rong and Shi, 2001: 108-9; Bush and Haiyan, 2000: 62; Oxfam Report, 1999: 1; Liu, 2004: 5; Bennell and Furlong, 1998). In rural China, each student ostensibly has access to nine years of mandatory education (Liu, 2004: 6). However, local governments are often incapable of subsidizing compulsory schooling, particularly post-primary schooling... Wed, 09 May 2018 12:52 EDT On the Necessity of Developing General Education for Undergraduates in Chinese Higher Institutions - 首页-必威登录|客户端下载『必威体育』APP - 西汉姆联官方赞助商! By Songchen Ma - The promotion of general education is a matter of ongoing debate owing to the pressing question of how to improve higher education in China. However, the available analytical material still remains somewhat experiential and emotion-oriented.In this paper the author—an undergraduate student of engineering who has received professional education at a prestigious top 10 university in China—reviews the origins of and literature pertaining to general education in the West. Subsequently in its literature review and cultural criticism study,this paper demonstrates the importance of developing... Mon, 23 Apr 2018 11:42 EDT The Impact of Background Stimuli on the Perception of Fear in Facial Expressions - 首页-必威登录|客户端下载『必威体育』APP - 西汉姆联官方赞助商! By Stephanie Kwon - Byrnes (1983) found bright colors were associated with positive emotions (e.g., happiness) and dark colors were associated with negative (e.g., sadness) emotions. Emotion is communicated through facial expressions which are a form of nonverbal communication (VandenBos, 2007). The current study examined the impact of background stimulation (static, blue, and black) on the perception of fear (Frith, 2009) in facial expressions. Fear is relevant because fearful facial expressions are important for communicating to others about potential threats (Beck, Cardini, Ladavas, & Bertini, 2015). 30 undergraduate... Mon, 26 Mar 2018 10:45 EDT The Poetics of Witnessing in the Works of Seamus Heaney - 首页-必威登录|客户端下载『必威体育』APP - 西汉姆联官方赞助商! By Dipsikha Thakur - In his poem ‘Punishment’ from the poetry collection North (1975), Seamus Heaney picks up the voice of a witness who is suspended between the possibilities of love, silence, voyeurism, outrage and above all, the understanding of the process of violence that brings the ‘numbered bones’ of the corpse it describes to its present state. While it would no doubt be too obvious a strategy to read Heaney’s personal voice in that of the speaker of this poem, there are nonetheless resonances in this state of paralysis between mutually irreconcilable positions that brings to... Thu, 22 Mar 2018 04:25 EDT